Read e-book online A Combinatorial Introduction to Topology (Dover Books on PDF

By Michael Henle

ISBN-10: 0486679667

ISBN-13: 9780486679662

Very good textual content for upper-level undergraduate and graduate scholars indicates how geometric and algebraic rules met and grew jointly into an incredible department of arithmetic. Lucid insurance of vector fields, surfaces, homology of complexes, even more. a few wisdom of differential equations and multivariate calculus required. Many difficulties and routines (some ideas) built-in into the textual content. 1979 version. Bibliography.

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Additional resources for A Combinatorial Introduction to Topology (Dover Books on Mathematics)

Example text

Suppose we could arrange seven points AI> A z, A a, A" As, Ae, A7 and seven lines Pb P2, Pa. p" Ps, Pe, P7 in a configuration satisfying the conditions of the problem. We show first that in this case any line joining two of the points AI> As, Aa, A 4, As. Ae. A7 is one of the seven lines PI> pz, Ps. P4. Ps, Pe. P7. and that any point of intersection of two of the lines Pl. pz. Ps. P4. Ps. Pe. P7 is one of the points AI> A z• Aa. A" As. Ae. A 7. Suppose. for example. that PI' Pz. Pa are the three lines which pass through the point AI' By hypothesis two of our points (apart from AI) lie on each of these lines.

Next, if p is any integer, and q is a positive integer, we define a 11/ q to be (a 1/ q )11. Thus we have defined a" for all rational numbers r. The laws of exponents, namely ar+s = ar . a", arB = (ary, where rand s are rational, are not hard to prove using the above definitions. It is also easy to show that ar is an increasing ° ° 29 Xl. Areas of regions bounded by curves y = xt y y -t----------tJ---y = c x q>i a. q

41 Thus the only case remaining is the one in which A, B, C, D are at the vertices of the trapezoid illustrated in fig. 37f. In this case A, B, C, E must form a congruent trapezoid, and it is easy to see that the five points A, B, C, D, E must lie at the vertices of a regular pentagon (fig. /5)/2. • Note that if we circumscribe a circle about the trapezoid ABCE (fig. 37f), then the points A, B, C, D will be four of the vertices of a regular pentagon inscribed in this circle. Toprovethis,putLDAB= LADB=oc.

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A Combinatorial Introduction to Topology (Dover Books on Mathematics) by Michael Henle

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