Download e-book for kindle: Affine Sets and Affine Groups by D. G. Northcott

By D. G. Northcott

ISBN-10: 052122909X

ISBN-13: 9780521229098

In those notes, first released in 1980, Professor Northcott offers a self-contained creation to the idea of affine algebraic teams for mathematicians with a simple wisdom of communicative algebra and box thought. The publication divides into elements. the 1st 4 chapters comprise all of the geometry wanted for the second one half the ebook which bargains with affine teams. however the 1st half presents a yes advent to the principles of algebraic geometry. Any affine workforce has an linked Lie algebra. within the final chapters, the writer stories those algebras and indicates how, in convinced vital instances, their houses will be transferred again to the teams from which they arose. those notes supply a transparent and punctiliously written advent to algebraic geometry and algebraic teams.

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Example text

W 1 (x) = w2 (x) Let w ,w -- for all x 1 E 2 E L[y(L)]. Then w 1 = w2 if and only if y. The following lemma, which is too obvious to require proof, is a useful aid in identifying the results of extending the ground field. Lemma 14. Let Y be an affine set defined over K, y* an affine set defined over L, and suppose that Y is a subset of Y*. Denote by S the L-algebra obtained by restricting the functions that make up L[Y*] to Y and suppose that the following two conditions are satisfied: (a) S = K[y]L, (b) the homomorphism L[Y*] -+ S of L-algebras induced by restriction is an isomorphism.

10. 1). Further let x E V and denote by M w(x) = the corresponding maximal ideal of K[V]. Then x 0 if and only if f. E M 1 for i E I, that is if and only if w E M 8. 10. 3) w(x) = M 8-residue of w. 4) and x 8ince M 8 n K[V] x = Mx, we conclude from (2. 10. 3) that different points of V give rise to different L-rational maximal ideals of 8. Of course, usually not every L-rational maximal ideal of 8 will arise from a point of V. To these observations we add the obvious one that if w(x) =0 for all x E V, then w = O.

Accordingly Kn is an affine set with K[X ,X , •.. , X ] Then X , X , ••. , X 1 1 n 2 n 2 1 2 n as its coordinate ring. We refer to this affine set as affine n-space. Of course where the right hand side consists of the members of K[X 1 , X 2 , ••• ,Xn ] regarded as functions from Kn to K, and the natural homomorphism K[X 1 , X 2 , ••• , X ] ... K[X , X , ... , X ] n 1 2 n maps X. into X .. I 1 Let

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Affine Sets and Affine Groups by D. G. Northcott

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