By Steven Otfinoski
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The essays and case reports gathered here--featuring the superior fabric from heart East file over the last decade in addition to a lot unique material--challenge the facile generalizations approximately what Western media and political institutions frequently name "Islamic fundamentalism. " The authors display the complexity of those activities and provide complementary and contrasting interpretations in their origins and value.
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Fawaz A. Gerges is professor of diplomacy and Emirates Professor in modern heart East experiences on the London college of Economics and Political technological know-how. His many books comprise the hot center East, Obama and the center East, and The a ways Enemy. His writing has seemed within the ny occasions, the Washington publish, the mum or dad, international Affairs, and different publications.
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Additional info for Afghanistan (Nations in Transition)
He was succeeded by two equally aged men, Yuri Andropov and Konstantin Chernenko, both of whom died within about a year of taking office. In 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev (b. 1931), a younger, pragmatic politician came to power in the Kremlin. He called the costly war in Afghanistan “a bleeding wound” and sought to take steps to de-escalate it. In 1986, he ordered 8,000 troops to withdraw and agreed to participate in negotiations in Geneva, Switzerland, led by the United Nations (UN). The mujahideen’s refusal to participate in the negotiations and the Soviet’s reluctance to withdraw more troops from Afghanistan slowed down efforts to end the war.
For this, and his important role in fashioning the first successful Afghan constitution, Zahir continues to be revered by many of his fellow Pashtuns. He is also seen as a symbol of the nationalist spirit, a father figure who alone can bring together the diverse ethnic groups that make up the population. Before his arrival in Afghanistan, the Tajiks were fearful the King would serve as a rallying point for the Pashtun majority and threaten their own power. Since then, however, they have come to accept Zahir’s role as a peacemaker and conciliator.
In 1947, India won its independence from Great Britain and THE ROCKY ROAD TO NATIONHOOD (1919–1979) ■ 19 Indian Muslims demanded an independent state of their own from the Hindu majority. This is how Pakistan came into being. Afghan Pashtuns living on the Pakistan frontier demanded that they be allowed to establish their own state, “Pashtunistan,” that would be independent of Pakistan. To facilitate this, they disputed the Durand Line, Afghanistan’s border with Pakistan, which the Afghans never officially recognized.
Afghanistan (Nations in Transition) by Steven Otfinoski