By Barry M. Rubin
A historical past of America's tangled position within the center East lines the roots of the Persian Gulf conflict again to the oil increase days of the Seventies. via the writer of Islamic Fundamentalism in Egyptian Politics.
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Additional resources for Cauldron of Turmoil: America in the Middle East
S. efforts to find a peaceful resolution to the Arab-Israeli conflict in the 1970s and 1980s. S. regional influence and guarantee Israel's survival. These countries sponsored 34 campaigns of terrorist attacks not as a protest insisting the United States do more but in order to block peace when they feared diplomacy might make some progress. Actually, American attempts to win over the extremists made things worse. S. Middle East policy. The United States had only two choices in the Middle East: either the Iranians and Arabs would see America as a powerful elephant whose interests they would have to respect or they would view it as a paper tiger which might be easily and profitably defied.
After a series of complex purges and maneuvers, he was soon vice-president and the power behind the throne--the country's real ruler--at an age when most men of political genius are just starting the first steps up the ladder 43 to power. Iraq's political tradition and Saddam's personal experience had been harsh. Saddam's predecessors had paid with their lives for being too soft. He had learned that one must kill or be killed, destroy one's enemies or be overthrown by them, and ruthlessly centralize power or face national disintegration.
Mistakes would bring major Soviet gains proved to be wrong. The radicals had turned to Moscow in the 1950s and 1960s not from disillusionment with America but because they saw the USSR as a model for statist economic development, an ideological soulmate, a source of arms for aggression, and an ally in their drive to take over the area. Syria, for example, allied itself with Moscow because the United States would never support its ambition to rule Jordan, Israel, Lebanon, and the Palestinians. In contrast, the Soviets were willing to furnish it with 7000 military advisers plus huge stocks of the most advanced planes, missiles, and tanks.
Cauldron of Turmoil: America in the Middle East by Barry M. Rubin