Download e-book for kindle: Critical Issues Facing the Middle East: Security, Politics, by J. Russell

By J. Russell

ISBN-10: 140397246X

ISBN-13: 9781403972460

ISBN-10: 1403983208

ISBN-13: 9781403983206

Addressing systemic adjustments within the heart East's safety setting because the Iraq conflict, favorite specialists examine the demanding situations those adjustments pose to US technique and coverage. They learn the reasons of profound fiscal, political and spiritual transitions and their implications for hopes of reform.

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Additional resources for Critical Issues Facing the Middle East: Security, Politics, and Economics (Initiatives in Strategic Studies: Issues and Policies)

Sample text

In 2000, 88% of age groups in the region finished school. In Egypt and Jordan more than 95% did so, whereas between 85 and 94% did in Algeria, Tunisia, Syria, and Iran, between half and three-quarters finished in Oman, UAE, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, and Pakistan. Less than half finished in Sudan and Afghanistan. More discouragingly, completion rates in the Middle East and North Africa stagnated in the 1990s. 11. Bulliet, The Case for Islamo-Christian Civilization. 12. Willem van Eeghen, “Poverty in the Middle East and North Africa” (Washington, DC: World Bank, 1995).

And moderates must contain their allies, who are more radical opponents of the regime. If all three conditions are met, it will be possible for a large enough set of social actors to believe that both current power-wielders and their opponents have made a credible commitment to follow rules of the game in which defeat at the polls does not mean annihilation. The literature describes these coalitions and their fruits as “pacted transitions” because a tacit agreement or pact between moderates inside the government and in the opposition is necessary for a transition toward democratic rule.

In the language of economics, if supply cannot be reliably and consistently increased, improved demand management will necessarily loom much larger in the future as a means of coping with scarcity. However, such an approach has formidable hardware requirements of physical infrastructure and software requirements of management systems, configurations of incentives, and modes of cooperating to share increasingly scarce water. Reallocating water will often require significant investment and new infrastructure.

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Critical Issues Facing the Middle East: Security, Politics, and Economics (Initiatives in Strategic Studies: Issues and Policies) by J. Russell

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