By William B Boyce; William J Davis
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Additional info for A grammar of the Kaffir language
E. with subject extraction normally taking place from a lower position distinct from the ‘inverted’ subject position, a low focus position, according to the analysis of Belletti 2004b, which is not directly connected to the strategy of avoiding that-trace effects; see also Nicolis 2005 for relevant comparative evidence). On Some Properties of Criterial Freezing 31 The question arises, though, of why the stranded quantiﬁer is not sufﬁcient, in and of itself, for the satisfaction of the Subject Criterion in (30c) and (31c).
M Crit. Probe ... quale . . . . Crit. Goal ] Once an Agree relation is established between these two elements, the principles of Pied-piping determine which phrase M containing the Criterial Goal can be internally merged as the speciﬁer of the Criterial Probe, and internal merge takes place, yielding a structure like the following: (13) [M ... quale . . . . ] Q ... ... Crit. Goal Crit. Probe t ... We can now state Criterial Freezing as follows: (14) Criterial Freezing (ﬁnal): In a criterial conﬁguration, the Criterial Goal is frozen in place.
Natural languages typically assign this duality of interpretive properties to an expression by having the expression occur twice, in two positions dedicated to the assignment of such properties. This is the conﬁguration traditionally referred to as ‘movement’: the expression is inserted in the thematic position and then is moved to the scope-discourse position. In an approach reducing movement to internal merge, and adopting the copy theory of traces (Chomsky 1995a; 2000), the element actually occurs twice in the two dedicated positions, both in the derivational history and in the derived representation.
A grammar of the Kaffir language by William B Boyce; William J Davis