By Duncan O. Okombo, M. Lionel Bender, Franz Rottland
Dholuo (Luo) belongs to the Western Nilotic sub-branch of the Nilotic department of the jap Sudanic kin. Of the Nilotic languages in Kenya basically Dholuo, spoken via approximately 2 million humans, belongs to the Western Nilotic workforce. Languages heavily concerning it are present in Uganda and the Sudan. Following the theoretical tenets of sensible Grammar, the current quantity is a examine with a two-fold objective: First, it units out to supply a descriptively enough account of constituent order in Dholuo; secondly, it investigates the opportunity of supplying such an account with no utilizing transformational ideas within the experience of structure-changing operations.
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Extra info for A Functional Grammar of Dholuo
Even after conceding that tense markers need not be grammaticalized, one still finds it difficult to argue for tense-marking in Dholuo. The -multiplicity of lexical items involved is itself suspicious. But even more important is the fact that there are no systematic grammatical contrasts expressed by the time relations lexicalized in this semantic ﬁeld (cf. Lyons 1968:5504). We really have to admit that words such as those listed in (a) - (j) above are only temporal adverbs, more speciﬁcally, ‘point time‘ adverbs (cf.
Here what is negated can be understood as the whole propositional content of the parallel sentence ' (56) ‘ Adwarochierno I-want food - and, in this way, it differs from a sentence such as (57) Chiemo e food ma ok adwar _ Foe rel. ‘ where only Opiyo falls within the scope of ok. - Au OUTLINE or Duoauo Gaiuiinas 35 Problems of this nature will be discussed at length when we come to deal with pragmatic functions in Dholuo. As is the case in many other languages (perhaps in all languages), the surface satellites around the verb include not only markers of tense, aspect, and negation (all of which are scope-bearing elements), but also noun phrases or nominal terms that refer to participants in the event speciﬁed by the verb (agents, goals, objects, instruments, and the like).
According to Stockwell (197755), noun phrases are ‘clusters of words in surface strings of which the nuclei are nouns‘. This definition needs to be qualiﬁed by stating that ﬂie -satellites around the noun nucleus may be null elements so as to account for the fact that some nouns, especially proper 22 Dnowo Gsxumxa nouns, are capable of standing alone in a phrasal position. In fact, as we have pointed out above, in a language such as Dholuo all nouns, common or proper, are capable of ﬁlling phrasal positions without modiﬁcation or determination.
A Functional Grammar of Dholuo by Duncan O. Okombo, M. Lionel Bender, Franz Rottland