Read e-book online Definiteness and Indefiniteness: A Study in Reference and PDF

By John A. Hawkins

ISBN-10: 1138919306

ISBN-13: 9781138919303

First released in 1988, this e-book is worried with the yes and indefinite articles in English. It presents an built-in pragmatic-semantic concept of convinced and indefinite reference, at the foundation of which, many co-occurance regulations among articles and non-modifiers are defined.

At the final theoretical point, this e-book seems on the function of semantics within the prediction of all and merely the grammatical sentences of a language. A generalisation is proposed uniting semantic oppositions underlying ungrammaticality with syntactic oppositions among stipulations of program on transformational generative principles. A process is advised for distinguishing semantic from syntactic motives of ungrammaticality.

At a extra specific point, the booklet explores the character of reference. It examines a huge choice of topics corresponding to the distinction among definiteness and indefiniteness, the connection among convinced and demonstrative reference, and the connection among pragmatic and logical elements of making a choice on meaning.

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Additional resources for Definiteness and Indefiniteness: A Study in Reference and Grammaticality Prediction

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It is the absence of any general theory and understanding on these matters which, I believe, explains the rapid succession of developments in transformational theory as the model adjusts itself, somewhat piecemeal, to new fragments of data. For example, Katz and Postal’s re-analysis of the imperative construction was designed to make better predictions about the grammaticality facts associated with imperatives, on the basis of a semantically enriched deep structure. Katz and Postal discussed grammaticality facts which had gone unnoticed and whose significance had been unappreciated in Chomsky (1957).

213). For these semantic facts he proposed a new set of surface structure interpretation rules. But basic grammatical relations were to receive their semantic interpretation at the deep structure level still. This Extended Standard Theory marked essentially a return to the position of Chomsky (1957). 2 above. Deep structure inter­ pretation was not possible as long as the two sets of semantically distinct outputs had the same input, cf. 5. Surface structure interpretation was justified on the grounds that for the phenomena in question the surface form reflected the meaning in a natural and straightforward way and that to assign a different deep structure for each case of a semantically different or ambiguous surface structure w ould have com plicated unnecessarily both the transforma­ tions and the deep structure itself.

31 The boy ran into the house. Into the house ran the boy. 33 John dismissed the boys. The boys John dismissed. 34 John kicked the ball into the house. 36 Into the house John kicked the ball. The ball John kicked into thehouse. 37 *Into the house the ball John kicked. The rules of Directional Adverb Preposing and Topicalisation may apply in either order. In either event the output of the first rule prevents the input of the second from being met. In Emonds’s (1976) analysis of these rules, both have the effect of substituting a constituent for a sentence-initial COMP node.

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Definiteness and Indefiniteness: A Study in Reference and Grammaticality Prediction by John A. Hawkins

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